Almost all inhabitants of the archipelago live on the main island, Socotra (42 442 people, 2004). The main town — Hadibo (the population about 33 thousand, 2004). On Abd-el-Kuri (300 people, 2004) and Samkhe (100 people, 2004) lives only some hundreds of people, Darsa, Sabuniya and Kal-Firaun are uninhabited.

Most of the local people are indigenous Soqotri people, who are of Southern Arabian descent, and are said to be especially closely related with the Qara and Mahra groups of Southern Arabia. There are also a number of residents of Somali and Indian origin. In addition, the island is inhabited by various Black African peoples, who are believed to be descendants of runaway slaves.

The Semitic language Soqotri, spoken originally only in Socotra, is related to such other Modern South Arabian languages on the Arabian mainland as Mehri, Harsusi, Bathari, Shehri, and Hobyot. Soqotri is also spoken by minority populations in the United Arab Emirates and other Persian Gulf states.

The majority of male residents on Socotra are reported to be in the J* subclade of Y-DNA haplogroup J. Several of the female lineages on the island, notably those in mtDNA haplogroup N, are found nowhere else on earth.

Almost all inhabitants of Socotra, numbering nearly 50,000, live on the homonymous main island of the archipelago. The principal city, Hadibu (with a population of 8,545 at the census of 2004); the second largest town, Qulansiyah (population 3,862); and Qād̨ub (population 929) are all located on the north coast of the island of Socotra. Only about 450 people live on 'Abd-al-Kūrī and 100 on Samha; the island of Darsa and the islets of the archipelago are uninhabited.

The archipelago forms two districts of the Hadhramaut Governorate:

  • the district of Hadibu (حديبو), with a population of 32,285 and a district seat at Hadibu, consists of the eastern two-thirds of the main island of Socotra;
  • the district of Qulansiyah wa 'Abd-al-Kūrī (قلنسيهوعبدالكوري), with a population of 10,557 and a district seat at Qulansiyah, consists of the minor islands (the island of 'Abd-al-Kūrī chief among them) and the western third of the main island.

The Socotri language - classic unwritten language of the before islamic origin connected with the Mahri language. The Socotri language has four groups of a dialect.

The Arabic language - official and formal language;

English is spoken by the people working in the tourist industry.

The famous Socotra honey.

The French Development Agency (AFD) has provided a grant of € 1 million to support and protect the biodiversity of the archipelago of Socotra. The grant agreement was signed by Minister of Planning and International Cooperation Abdul-Karim al-Arhabi and the French ambassador to Yemen Joseph Silva. This once again demonstrates the mutual cooperation between Yemen and the countries sponsoring biodiversity Socotri archipelago. Al-Arhabi said that the government appreciates the support of the Socotra archipelago and its biodiversity.

In 2007 the French embassy in Yemen has assisted in the creation of a specialized center in Honey Hadibo, the largest city on Socotra. Honey Centre supervised development organization Socotri beekeeping. Center occupies two French experts and collaborate with 113 Socotri beekeepers. According to Mr-Hokh Adham, Director of the Centre Honey, they collect between 200 and 300 liters of honey during the rainy season, and about 100 liters in the rest of the year. Socotri beekeepers hives in 1130 provided a unique production of honey.

Honey takes control of the quality and health standards.

The center offers the following five known varieties of natural Socotri honey: honey Dragon trees, honey tree Ziziphus, honey Aloe vera, honey Euphorbia, mountain highland honey.